Babies in the Womb and Vision
By the second trimester, long before a babies in the womb can see images, they can detect light. But the light-sensitive cells in the developing retina — the thin sheet of brain-like tissue at the back of the eye — were thought to be simple on-off switches, presumably there to set up the 24-hour, day-night rhythms parents hope their baby will follow. University of California, Berkeley, scientists have now found evidence that these simple cells actually talk to one another as part of an interconnected network that gives the retina more light sensitivity than once thought, and that may enhance the influence of light on behavior and brain development in babies in the womb unsuspected ways.
In the developing eye, perhaps 3% of ganglion cells — the cells in the retina that send messages through the optic nerve into the brain — are sensitive to light and, to date, researchers have found about six different subtypes that communicate with various places in the brain. Some talk to the suprachiasmatic nucleus to tune our internal clock to the day-night cycle. Others send signals to the area that makes our pupils constrict in bright light. But others connect to surprising areas: the perihabenula, which regulates mood, and the amygdala, which deals with emotions.
In mice and monkeys, recent evidence suggests that these ganglion cells also talk with one another through electrical connections called gap junctions, implying much more complexity in immature rodent and primate eyes than imagined.
“Given the variety of these ganglion cells and that they project to many different parts of the brain, it makes me wonder whether they play a role in how the retina connects up to the brain,” said Marla Feller, a UC Berkeley professor of molecular and cell biology and senior author of a paper that appeared this month in the journal Current Biology. “Maybe not for visual circuits, but for non-vision behaviors. Not only the pupillary light reflex and circadian rhythms, but possibly explaining problems like light-induced migraines, or why light therapy works for depression.”
Parallel systems in developing retina
The cells, called intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), were discovered only 10 years ago, surprising those like Feller who had been studying the developing retina for nearly 20 years. She played a major role, along with her mentor, Carla Shatz of Stanford University, in showing that spontaneous electrical activity in the eye during development — so-called retinal waves — is critical for setting up the correct brain networks to process images later on. Hence her interest in the ipRGCs that seemed to function in parallel with spontaneous retinal waves in the developing retina.
“We thought they (mouse pups and the human fetus) were blind at this point in development,” said Feller, the Paul Licht Distinguished Professor in Biological Sciences and a member of UC Berkeley’s Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute. “We thought that the ganglion cells were there in the developing eye, that they are connected to the brain, but that they were not really connected to much of the rest of the retina, at that point. Now, it turns out they are connected to each other, which was a surprising thing.”
UC Berkeley graduate student Franklin Caval-Holme combined two-photon calcium imaging, whole-cell electrical recording, pharmacology and anatomical techniques to show that the six types of ipRGCs in the newborn mouse retina link up electrically, via gap junctions, to form a retinal network that the researchers found not only detects light, but responds to the intensity of the light, which can vary nearly a billionfold.
Gap junction circuits were critical for light sensitivity in some ipRGC subtypes, but not others, providing a potential avenue to determine which ipRGC subtypes provide the signal for specific non-visual behaviors that light evokes.
“Aversion to light, which pups develop very early, is intensity-dependent,” suggesting that these neural circuits could be involved in light-aversion behavior, Caval-Holme said. “We don’t know which of these ipRGC subtypes in the neonatal retina actually contributes to the behavior, so it will be very interesting to see what role all these different subtypes have.”
The researchers also found evidence that the circuit tunes itself in a way that could adapt to the intensity of light, which probably has an important role in development, Feller said.
“In the past, people demonstrated that these light-sensitive cells are important for things like the development of the blood vessels in the retina and light entrainment of circadian rhythms, but those were kind of a light on/light off response, where you need some light or no light,” she said. “This seems to argue that they are actually trying to code for many different intensities of light, encoding much more information than people had previously thought.”
The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH F31EY028022-03, RO1EY019498, RO1EY013528, P30EY003176).
Source: Materials provided by University of California – Berkeley. Original written by Robert Sanders. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
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The Nine Best deprive Clubs in Miami 2020
when you from Miami, You’re aware its porn institutions (Or tape clubs, If make sure you) Are some of the city’s finest venues for making merry. an additional popping bottles, Noshing on lemon pepper wings, Or negotiating variances a shoulder rub so you can fling more of your life savings into the air, you will never know what might happen within the friendly confines of local gentlemen’s clubs.
So sit back and relax as we present another alphabetical list of Miami’s best places to see buck naked women. After closing for a few months, The revered gentlemen’s club reopened before the Super Bowl LIV nude rush. The dancers at Bellas are recognized for their friendliness and if your party arrives hungry (For culinary), which will order a round of croquetas for the table. The Pepto pink edifice just about purrs for an Instagram selfie; Even if you’ve never set foot inside, the outer sticks out like a pink thumb. the interior is equally memorable: There are ladies all around you. Club Pink Pussycat prides itself on employing the most wonderful young women in Miami between the strip spot’s raison d’tre and its wallet friendly happy hour specials, Your good time is all but definite. ensure that you do arrive with a fat wad of cash: The clientele isn’t shy about creating it rain during dances, Which are often with a live band and DJ.
Foxxy wife Cabaret
1792 NW 79th st, las vegas
giving away a weeknight at the Foxxy Lady beats going home after work. The cabaret offers the dual example of a strip club and a sports bar, Allowing you to keep tabs on the game and watch asses shake concurrently,just the same. Foxxy Lady falls on the cheaper end of the local strip club spectrum, and $10 lap dances, A $5 cover on mondays to fridays, And returning drink specials. ohio, And the girl prides herself on her full friction VIP rooms. The club resides in the heart of North Miami Beach and is a favorite among locals. Expect to be greeted by a continuing rotation of shot girls and dancers urging you to burn through your savings. The dancers at G5ive have perfected alcohol twerking. the spot bills itself as a “right” Cabaret, But that doesn’t mean you won’t see nude women on display. party area fiends, observe: Gold Rush is mix strip club and nightclub, to help you squeeze in a lap dance or two between dance dances. Perched on Biscayne boulevard at NE 77th Street, The club pumps reggaeton and reggae sounds, Which means high energy service is always on tap. The dancers here know very they’re doing, So expect skills on stage and pole alike.
250 NE 183rd st, gambling
Most people assume the best time to go to a strip club is at 2 am, But work offers a day party that can’t be beat. correct here, The happy hour commences at noon, defining it as supereasy to stop in for a drink special and lap dance fueled lunch break. Hip hop reigns supreme here no matter the time, So almost always there is a soundtrack conducive to tossing dollar bills. The dancers and waitresses at the Office cause you to feel right at home, And the lemon pepper wings count an extra tip.
One Gentlemen’s chnlove real or fake football club
333 NE 79th street, holland
Who says New York is the city that never sleeps? Miami strip clubs don’t give a damn if you have to work the next day. One Gentlemen’s Club is popular among Miamians who treat Monday evening like Saturday night. infamous for holding the hood down, One is a chosed option for weekend averse party people. You might have to explain to your bosses why their emails have gone unanswered and that important presentation isn’t finished yet, But bear in mind there are limited places where you can down a $5 Hennessy shot while getting a lap dance. your job can wait.66 at the. 25th e, Hialeah
over Tootsie’s Cabaret, will probably be lucky enough to spot Miami strip club enthusiast Drake enjoying shoulder rubs and eating wings in the VIP area on the second floor. Toronto’s pride and joy has shouted out the famous strip club many times in songs, Making it a must for pop culture strip club home chefs. Tootsie’s sets the product quality for dinner and a bare ass show: Whether it’s the gorgeous dancers and hosts or the far reaching menu offering pasta and wing selections, You’d be pushed not to find something you enjoy. The club’s two floors separate the admission guests from the VIP clientele, But regulars here know the vibes on the first floor are unequaled.
Megan McKenna training courses aimed at helping First Nations identity crisis
Ciro Alfonso Perez, Pasaintor of st. Mary’s Parish and movie director of the Redemptorists in Saskatoon, Gayle Weenie, First Nations elder and member of Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish, together with Fr. Graham hill, Pastor of your Lady of Guadalupe Parish. Submitted Photo reviews and recommendations are unbiased and products are independently selected. Postmedia may earn a joint venture partner commission from purchases made through links on this page.
content articles Many First Nations communities are facing an identity crisis, utters Fr. Ciro Alfonso Perez, Pastor of st. Mary’s and representative of the Redemptorists in Saskatoon, “The mission of Redemptorists is to preach the Gospel in obedience to Jesus’ directive to go asiame and make disciples and teach them. We find new ways to get in touch with people, And Megan McKenna does that particular. She uses the First Nations tradition of storytelling to present the content of the Gospel,
McKenna will conduct several workshops and preach at countless masses in Saskatoon. All events are swirling at St. Mary’s Parish Hall constructed at 211 Avenue O South. people welcome to attend.
available on Friday, McKenna spoketo the teenagers of St. Mary’s. standard at St. Mary’s tonight, and the masses there on Sunday. mass, Followed by a short web presentation on Our Lady of Guadalupe, patron of the Americas.
Gayle Weenie, A First Nations elder and member of Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish, Believes McKenna’s workshops will be useful in reminding First Nations people of who they uniquely are. She says preserving language, spirituality, motions and culture are a start.
in Weenie, First Nations languages have been introduced in the institution systems, But are competing for attention with television and technology.
“often the language isn’t spoken at home any more. Maybe the grandparents speak it, But they’re back on the reserve, states.
“And as for spiritual techniques, When I was being raised, government entities didn’t allow us to practise our spirituality. It mostly went subterranean, And survived because of a few people who kept the traditions alive. Now we’re getting our individuals educated and our pow wows are coming back.